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Study of Cavity dynamics in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor

Kuldeep1, Jitendra Carpenter2 Virendra Kumar Saharan3

1PG Student, Chemical Engineering Department, MNIT, Jaipur-302017, India 2JRF, Chemical Engineering Department, MNIT, Jaipur-302017, India 3Chemical Engineering Department, MNIT, Jaipur-302017, India

Abstract: Cavitation is defined as sequential formation, growth and rapid collapse of micro-bubbles or cavities in liquid medium with releasing large amount of energy within small time interval (in few micro seconds). On the Basis of mode of generation, there are four types of cavitation: Hydrodynamic cavitation, Acoustic cavitation, Optic cavitation and Particle cavitation. Hydrodynamic and Acoustic cavitation occur as the result of tension prevailing in liquid while Optic and Particle cavitation occur as the result of local deposition of energy in liquid. Hydrodynamic cavitation has a great scope of scale-up on an industrial scale due to its ability in generating cavitation at a much larger scale than acoustic cavitation. To study the flow characteristics inside a Hydrodynamic cavitating device, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to simulate flow phenomena in various cavitating devices.

This paper reports optimization of various geometrical parameter of different hydrodynamic cavitating reactor such as Slit, Circular and elliptical venturi. Different operating and geometrical parameter such as divergence angle (5.50, 6.50, 7.50), slit height/diameter to length ratio (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) and operating inlet pressure to the cavitating device (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 atm) were selected to study the inception, growth and dynamic of cavitation. Cavitational model and Turbulence model is used to study the CFD of cavitation reactor. In present work, the study of different geometries of venturi (like slit, circular and elliptical) shows that venturi with slit height/diameter to length ratio 1:1 and divergence angle 5.50 is an optimum geometry for best cavitational activity.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Venturi.


Cavitation is the phenomenon of sequential formation, growth and rapid collapse of micro-bubbles or cavities in liquid medium. During collapse, extremely high pressures on the order of thousands of atmospheres and extremely high temperatures on the order of thousands of degrees Kelvin are generated in the vapor phase inside the bubble. This process occurs in a few microseconds and at different locations in the reactor, thus releasing large amount of energy. Consequently, highly reactive free radicals are generated in the process due

to the dissociation of vapours which enhance the rates of the chemical reaction such as oxidation. These effects are responsible for the intensification of the processes like Water and Effluent Treatment, Emulsification, Leaching, Surface cleaning, Microbial cell disruption reaction and sonochemistry etc. Saharan et al., [1, 2] have studied the application of hydrodynamic cavitation and stated that it has scope to scale up on an industrial scale for enhancement the efficiency of the waste water treatment units.

On the basis of mode of generation there are four principle type of cavitation-

Hydrodynamic Cavitation: It is produced by pressure variation in a flowing liquid caused by the velocity variation in the system by changing the flow geometry of the flow system.

Acoustic Cavitation: It is a result of pressure variation in a liquid when ultrasound (sound with frequency greater than 16 KHz) waves pass through it.

Optic Cavitation: This type of cavitation is produced as a result of the rupture of a liquid due to high-intensity light or a laser.

Particle Cavitation: It is produced by any type of elementary particle beam (e.g., a proton) rupturing a liquid, resulting in cavitation.

According to Lauterborn (1980b), hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitations are the result of tensions prevailing in a liquid, while optic and particle cavitations are the consequence of local deposition of energy. Hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitations are mostly used in process flow application involving various physical and chemical transformations. [3]

Few years back cavitation was normally known as destructive phenomena due to its detrimental effect on the hydraulic devices such as pump, propeller, nozzles etc. But in last two decades scientist have tried cavitation phenomena for carry out various chemical and physical transformations due to its ability in generating and impacting energy directly to the point where it is actually required. These effects are related to the

Energy Technology & Ecological Concerns: A Contemporary Approach

ISBN: 978-81-93024-71-3 37

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