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Proceedings of Symposium on Ultrasonic Electronics, Vol. 30 (2009) pp. - 2 8-20 November, 2009

Visualization of cavitation behavior and sonochemical efficiency of a rectangular sonochemical reactor 直方体ソノリアクターの可視化によるキャビテーション挙動 とソノケミカル効率

Genki Sugiyama1†, Yoshihiro Kojima2, Yoshiyuki Asakura3 and Shinobu Koda1 (1Graduate School of Eng., Nagoya Univ.; 2Division of Energy Science, EcoTopia

Science Institute, Nagoya Univ., 3Honda Electronics Co., Ltd.)

杉山源希 1‡・小島義弘 2・朝倉義幸 3・香田忍 1(名大院工 1・名大エコトピア 2・本多電子 3)

1. Introduction

The bubbles generated by irradiating ultrasound in liquids and solutions repeat the expansion and contraction, and finally collapse. This leads to formation of a localized sonochemical reaction field with high temperature and pressure. There are many investigations of acoustically induced cavitation bubbles theoretically and experimentally. In the laboratory level, it is well known that the sonochemical reaction field is very useful for synthesis of nano-particles, degradation of organic compounds and so on.1-2) Recently, the industrial application attracts considerable attention. In order to apply the sonochemical effects to a practical chemical process, the development of efficient and controllable sonochemical reactors is desirable. The sonochemical efficiency depends not only on the reaction media but also on the sonication conditions, such as the ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic power, and liquid volume.3) The sonochemical efficiency is also influenced by cavitation behavior and the flow field. However, information about the cavitation behavior and the sonochemical efficiency is little. In this study, we investigate the relation between the sonochemical efficiency and the liquid flow under sonication with and without a mechanical stir.

2. Experimental

A glass vessel of a rectangular parallelepiped with the inner dimensions of 20 cm×20 cm×65 cm was employed as a reactor. A disk-shaped PZT transducer was attached to a vibration plate of a stainless-steel at the reactor bottom. The diameter of a PZT transducer was 50 mm. The transducer was driven by a power amplifier (L-400BM-H, Honda Electronics Co., Ltd.) and a signal generator (W1974, NF Corp.) to emit a continuous sinusoidal wave with the frequency of 490 kHz. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the experimental ------------------------------------------------------------ G.Sugiyama:

apparatus. In the measurement of the flow velocity by LDV (INNOVA 70, TSI), nylon particles (4 μm) were added to water. Moreover, by irradiating the water with seated laser light from the reactor side, we visualized cavitation behavior induced by ultrasound. We observed cavitation behavior, acoustic streaming and standing wave by digital video camera (HDR-SR11, Sony). We also visualized the sonochemical reaction field by observation of sonochemical luminescence. A mechanical stirrer (LR500A, Yamato Scientific Co., Ltd.) was used to generate a mechanical flow. The acoustic pressure was measured with a hydrophone (HNR-1000, ONDA). All measurements were carried out at room temperature. The sonochemical efficiency was evaluated by using the KI method and calorimetry.4)

Fig.1 Experimental setup for LDV measurement.

3. Result and discussion

Figure 2 shows the cavitation behavior under sonication with and without a mechanical stir. In the case of sonication without a mechanical stir, as shown in Fig. 2(a), the fountain was observed. In our previous paper,5) we reported that up to the 10 W electric power, the liquid surface fluctuated and the bubbles trapped at the standing wave were formed near the liquid surface. It is instructive to note that the sonochemical luminescence is observed in the region where the standing wave is formed. As the electric power increased to 50 W,

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