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1 Mineralisation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by acoustic

2 or hydrodynamic cavitation in conjunction with the

3 Advanced Fenton Process


5 David H Bremner1*, Stefano Di Carlo2, Anand G Chakinala1 and

6 Giancarlo Cravotto2


8 1 School of Contemporary Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee,

9 Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland, UK.


11 2 Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università di

12 Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125, Torino, Italy.


14 * Corresponding Author (Email:

15 Tel: 44 (0) 1382 308667

16 Fax: 44 (0) 1382 308663



19 Abstract 20

21 The mineralisation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in

22 the presence of zero-valent iron and hydrogen peroxide (the

23 Advanced Fenton process – AFP) whilst being subjected to acoustic

24 or hydrodynamic cavitation is reported. If the reaction is merely

25 stirred then there is 57% removal of TOC whilst on irradiation the

26 figure is 64% although the latter reaction is more rapid. Use of

27 ultrasound alone results in only 11% TOC removal in 60 min of

28 treatment time. Addition of iron powder marginally enhances the

29 extent of degradation but an appreciable increase is observed in the

30 presence of hydrogen peroxide which acts as a source for hydroxyl

31 radicals by Fenton chemistry as well as by dissociation in the

32 presence of ultrasound. The use of hydrodynamic cavitation in

33 conjunction with the advanced Fenton process has also been found

34 to be a useful tool for continuous remediation of water

35 contaminated with 2,4-D. After 20 minutes of treatment the

36 residual TOC is reduced to 30% and this probably represents the

37 remaining highly recalcitrant small organic molecules.


39 Keywords: zero valent iron; hydrogen peroxide; total organic

40 carbon, advanced Fenton process, cavitation.

41 42

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 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 260132.pdf Page 001
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