Infinity Supercritical

Supercritical Fluid Extraction Search Engine - Infinity Supercritical CO2 Extraction Publications Search Engine - Cannabis Industry - Publications On Demand - Real Time Browser Display

This SDR - Spinning Disc Reactor and Cavitation Reactor search was updated real-time via Filemaker on:

SDR - Spinning Disc Reactor and Cavitation Reactor Contents List

Previous Page View | Next Page View

Search Completed. Publication Name:

3527319344_c01.pdf

Page Number: 001

PDF Text:

1

The Power of Ultrasound

Hugo Miguel Santos, Carlos Lodeiro, and Jos e-Luis Capelo-MartRnez

1.1 Introduction

During the last 20 years we have witnessed an amazing increase in the application of ultrasonic energy in different fields of science. This is especially true for analytical chemistry. The number of manuscripts devoted to almost all kinds of analysis dealing with the uses of ultrasonic energy continues to grow year by year. As the uses of ultrasonication have become increasingly important in analytical chemistry so to has the importance of the type of ultrasonic device chosen to work with. Figure 1.1 shows the most common ultrasonic devices used nowadays in analytical applications. Not all devices perform equally and neither are all intended for the same applications. Therefore, the first thing to acquire when developing analytical chemistry with the aid of ultrasonication is a knowledge of the differences among the ultrasonic apparatus available, especially of the advantages and disadvantages expected for each one. Therefore, this chapter explains the state-of-the-art of ultrasonic technology as applied to analytical chemistry.

1.2 Cavitation

Sound, including ultrasound, is transmitted through any physical medium by waves that compress and stretch the molecular spacing of the medium through which it passes. As the ultrasound cross the medium (Figure 1.2) the average distance between the molecules will vary as they oscillate about their mean position. When the negative pressure caused for an ultrasonic wave crossing a liquid is large enough, the distance between the molecules of the liquid exceeds the minimum molecular distance required to hold the liquid intact, and then the liquid breaks down and voids are created. Those voids are the so-called cavitation bubbles [1–3].

Ultrasound in Chemistry: Analytical Applications. Edited by José-Luis Capelo-Martínez Copyright ! 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

ISBN: 978-3-527-31934-3

j1

PDF Image:

 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 3527319344_c01.pdf Page 001
SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTOR FOR SALE: 5L, 10L and 20L - 2,000 psi Complete Supercritical Fluid Extraction System - closed loop. Our systems are made at our fabrication shop in the state of Washington. Systems available: 5L, 10L, 20L, 100L, and larger custom. Typical build time is 2 weeks. This is not a Apeks Supercritical or Waters Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction System. We believe it is a better system, since we use 1/2 inch tubing for the CO2 flow, which is 4 times the flow rate of a Apeks, and up to 64 times the flow rate of a Waters system. We believe the result is faster processing time and better yield from increased exposure to CO2 solvent. Perfect for extraction of terpenes, trichomes, and Cannabinoids. Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction is a art, and the operator must have experience and training to obtain results. Go to website

Search Engine Contact: greg@infinitysupercritical.com