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Advances in Environmental Research 8 (2004) 501–551

A review of imperative technologies for wastewater treatment I: oxidation technologies at ambient conditions

Parag R. Gogate*, Aniruddha B. Pandit

Chemical Engineering Section, M.U.I.C.T., Matunga, Mumbai 400019, India

Accepted 4 April 2003


Nowadays, due to the increasing presence of molecules, refractory to the microorganisms in the wastewater streams, the conventional biological methods cannot be used for complete treatment of the effluent and hence, introduction of newer technologies to degrade these refractory molecules into smaller molecules, which can be further oxidized by biologicalmethods,hasbecomeimperative.Thepresentworkaimsathighlightingfivedifferentoxidationprocesses operatingatambientconditionsviz.cavitation,photocatalyticoxidation,Fenton’schemistry(belongingtotheclass of advanced oxidation processes) and ozonation, use of hydrogen peroxide (belonging to the class of chemical oxidationtechnologies).Theworkhighlightsthebasicsoftheseindividualprocessesincludingtheoptimumoperating parameters and the reactor design aspects with a complete overview of the various applications to wastewater treatmentintherecentyears.Inthenextarticleofthistwoarticleseriesonimperativetechnologies,hybridmethods (basically combination of the oxidation processes) will be discussed and the current work forms a useful foundation for the work focusing on hybrid technologies.


Keywords: Wastewater treatment; Cavitation; Photocatalysis; Ozonation; Hydrogen peroxide; Fenton’s chemistry; Optimum treatment conditions

stream to a certain minimum level in order to comply with the environmental laws, which are becoming more stringentthesedays.Thus,researchintonewormore efficient waste water treatment technologies so as to degrade the complex refractory molecules into simpler molecules is vital to combat the deteriorating water quality.Itshouldbenotedthatsomeofthesenewly developed technologies, e.g. cavitation may be more efficient on the laboratory scale and the knowledge required for the scale-up of the same and efficient large- scale operation is lacking (Adewuyi, 2001; Gogate, 2002;Mason,2000).Hence,itmayhappenthatthe new technologies have to be used only as a pretreatment stage followed by the conventional biological oxidation techniques.Inthisseriesofarticlesontheimperative technologies for the wastewater treatment, we have tried to concentrate on the oxidation technologies (operating at ambient conditions) operating both individually as

1. Introduction

New developments in the variety of fields to meet the ever-increasing requirements of human beings have also led to the presence of new compounds in the effluent streams of processing plants, which are not readily degraded by the conventional effluent treatment methods (Bauer and Fallmann, 1997; Mantzavinos et al.,1997;Otaletal.1997;Feigelsonetal.,2000).The focus on waste minimization and water conservation in recent years has also resulted in the production of concentratedortoxicresidues.Itisofutmostimportance to dispose off these residues in a proper manner as well as to keep the concentration of chemicals in the effluent

*Correspondingauthor.Tel.:q91-22-414-5616;fax:q91- 22-414-5614.

E-mail address: (P.R. Gogate).

1093-0191/04/$-seefrontmatter 2003ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved. doi:10.1016/S1093-0191(03)00032-7

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