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584-587_Korniluk_other.pdf

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

The 8th International Conference May 19–20, 2011, Vilnius, Lithuania Selected papers

ISSN 2029-7106 print / ISSN 2029-7092 online ISBN 978-9955-28-828-2 (2 Volume)

ISBN 978-9955-28-827-5 (3 Volume) http://enviro.vgtu.lt

© Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2011

APPLICATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC CAVITATION FOR LEACHATE OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL SITE

Marta Korniluk1, Janusz Ozonek2

1, 2Lublin University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Nadbystrzycka 40B Str., 20-618 Lublin, Poland. E-mail: 1m.korniluk@wis.pol.lublin.pl

Abstract. Landfill leachate is generated as a result of rainwater percolating through the landfilled waste and leaching organic and inorganic compounds formed during landfill transformation. Typically, landfill leachate is characterized by a high concentration of organic carbon (with an average COD of about 8000 mg O2/L) and total nitrogen, mainly in the form of ammonia nitrogen (with an average NH3-N of about 1600 mg/L). There are also present some toxic

refractive compounds, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals. Usually conventional treatment such as activated sludge method is insufficient to effectively remove con- taminants contained in landfill leachate. Thus in recent years advanced oxidation processes have been more widely applied to oxidize these contaminants. One of these methods, in which reactive hydroxyl radicals with a high oxidiz- ing potential are formed, is hydrodynamic cavitation.

The paper presents preliminary research concerning the application of hydrodynamic cavitation in landfill leachate treatment. During the experiment the influence of changes of temperature on the process efficiency was examined. Moreover, changes in essential process parameters, namely TOC and COD were analyzed.

Keywords: hydrodynamic cavitation, landfill leachate, advanced oxidation processes

1. Introduction

Landfilling is considered to be the simplest and the cheapest method of disposing solid urban waste (Renou et al. 2008). Modern landfills are highly engineered fa- cilities designed to minimize the adverse impact of the waste on the environment. However the generation of contaminated leachate remains an inevitable consequence of the existing landfills (Wiszniowski et al. 2006).

Landfill leachate is generated as a result of rainwater percolating through the landfilled waste and leaching organic and inorganic compounds formed during landfill transformation (Renou et al. 2008). Composition of land- fill leachate is highly variable and depends on many fac- tors such as refuse characteristics, hydrology of the site, climate, season, age of the site, height of refuse, and moisture routing through the refuse. However, three types of leachate can be basically distinguished depending on the landfill age (Kurnivan et al. 2006). The classification is shown in table 1.

Typically, leachate from young landfills is character- ized by a large amount of biodegradable organic matter, high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN), mainly in the form of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). The ratio of biochemical oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) decreases rap- idly with the aging of the landfill. Moreover leachate may

contain some toxic refractive compounds, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphen- yls (PCBs) and heavy metals (Kurnivan et al. 2006).

Table 1. Landfill leachate classification according to the age (Abbas et al. 2009)

Y oung <1 year

Medium 1-5 years

Old >5 years

pH

< 6.5

6.5-7.5

> 7.5

COD (g/L)

> 15

3.0-15

< 3.0

BOD5/COD

0.5-1.0

0.1-0.5

< 0.1

TOC/COD

< 0.3

0.3-0.5

> 0.5

NH3-N (mg/L)

< 400

400

> 400

Heavy metals (mg/L)

> 2.0

< 2.0

< 2.0

Biodegradability

Important

Medium

Low

584

Generally, the treatability of landfill leachate greatly depends on the age of the landfill. Conventional treatment such as activated sludge method is rather insufficient to effectively remove contaminants contained in old landfill leachate. Biological processes are preferred for the treat- ment of leachate with the high ratio of BOD5/COD, in turn, physical and chemical methods have been suggested

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