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International Journal of Engineering Inventions
e-ISSN: 2278-7461, p-ISSN: 2319-6491 Volume 3, Issue 7 (February 2014) PP: 06-08
Sonochemical Reactor with Phase Control
S. Shestakov, T. Shlenskaya, O. Krasulya, T. Baulina
Moscow State University of Technology and Management, Russia
Abstract: Describes the ability a managing the symmetric sonochemical reactor for physic-chemical treatment of chemically pure water, true and colloidal aqueous solutions, as well as disperse systems with the speed of sound in them more than at water. Such reactors are useful, for example, in the food industry, where are processed of different concentrations the solutions NaCl. Demonstrated that the development allows you to get the highest acoustic power dissipated on the cavitation and maximum performance of reactor without increasing the electrical power input but by nonparametric control cavitation. Describes the reactor with two tightly fastened by elastic gaskets and flanges at the nodes of the vibration displacement of the acoustic transformers to opposite ends of the housing which distribute in the treated solution coherent plane elastic
waves. The distance between the ends of the radiating transformers reactor is multiple of the number of half wavelengths of these oscillations in chemically pure water. Effect is achieved due to the fact that the phases of emitters must always be shifted relative each other in a predetermined angle.
Keywords: sonochemical reactor, nonparametric control cavitation.
Here we will talk about sonochemical reactor – apparatus for physical-chemical treatment ultrasound cavitation water, and true colloidal aqueous solutions, as well as disperse systems the speed of sound is higher than that of water. This processing is done in order to change their physico-chemical state the change of dipole- dipole and ion- dipole interactions in their environment and phases for intensification of chemical reactions. In sonochemical reactor the energy transfer into treated liquid has epithermal character and initiates processes characteristic of high-energy chemistry when she on a certain time is exit of the thermodynamic equilibrium. This allows to accumulate, for example, in water, without heating, a certain amount of energy and when returning to an equilibrium state return it as the heat of hydration of dissolved substances and dispersed component or herself by means of creating a molecular structure by hydrogen bonds among its molecules. In the non-equilibrium state the water has a high ability to solubility and intensely hydrates the molecules and ions of dissolved substances, creating them dense hydrate shells . This process of relaxation of nonequilibrium state. Sonochemical reactors are used, for example, in the food industry, pharmaceuticals and production of fuels [2,3].
II. Short Review Of Technical Literature
There are many designs of sonochemical reactors called still the cavitation reactors. They use as a technological factor elastic energy of the ultrasonic wave in the water which generates the acoustic cavitation. In some of them in creating this acoustic wave participates one ultrasonic transducer and one their reflective element (wall of the chamber, reflector) . But no matter how this reflector is arranged in the acoustic cell of reactor on it dissipated some of the energy of the elastic wave, that reducing the efficiency of conversion to this energy into energy cavitation, ie the efficiency of the reactor. Moreover, from the acoustics theory it is known that the reflection coefficient of the wave reflector is the negative, because the materials from which made reflectors have acoustic impedances are usually higher than that of water. Plane-elastic wave attenuates along a wave beam from the surface of radiation, when some part of energy is dissipates in the water at internal friction and cavitation . Practically acceptable law of attenuating of amplitude wave is described in [6,7]. Therefore are more effective sonochemical reactors have symmetric acoustic cell, which composed of two emitters emitting coherent waves propagating along axis towards each other . The superposition of these waves creates a general wave in reactor. In this case, the general wave has a damping to direction of the geometric center of the reactor. However, the bulk density of erosion power cavitation, more often, in reactors with a length of the beam of up to three half-wavelengths has a maximum value in the geometric center. This is due to the effect of non-parametric amplification cavitation . This effect directionally is used to amplify cavitation without any change of the acoustic parameters of the liquid and the dissolved therein gas  in the construction of reactors with several independent waves in volume a fluid. This is done in two ways: by using a special mutual location of the sources of coherent waves, or by controlling the phases of waves of these sources. The second is known only for reactor where there is no superposition of waves initiating of cavitation. Therefore, in a reactor with a two oppositely directed emitters on the same axis, if being processed the liquid, in which the
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