Infinity Supercritical

Supercritical Fluid Extraction Search Engine - Infinity Supercritical CO2 Extraction Publications Search Engine - Cannabis Industry - Publications On Demand - Real Time Browser Display

This SDR - Spinning Disc Reactor and Cavitation Reactor search was updated real-time via Filemaker on:

SDR - Spinning Disc Reactor and Cavitation Reactor Contents List

Previous Page View | Next Page View

Search Completed. Publication Name:


Page Number: 001

PDF Text:


© Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Creative Commons license 3.0

Research article ISSN 0976 – 4402

Escalation of degradation of malachite green and Methyl violet using

hydrodynamic cavitations using different orifice geometry

Madhu G M, Ashly Thomas, Deepak S, Preetham H S, Rajanandam K S Department of Chemical Engineering, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India

doi: 10.6088/ijes.2014050100081


The degradation of malachite green and methyl violet solution was studied using hydrodynamic cavitation. Effect of inlet pressure, oxidizing agent, geometry of the orifice, cavitation number and pH were studied with the aim of maximizing degradation. Studies were done individually and in combination with H2O2. It was found that there was an obvious synergetic effect of H2O2 and hydrodynamic cavitation in the degradation of dyes. With the increase in pressure the degradation was found to be increased and with decrease in orifice diameter and cavitation number the degradation was found to be increased. It was observed that maximum of 98.42% and 62.48% of malachite green and methyl violet solution degraded without oxidant at 5 kg/cm2 using 2 mm orifice. 2 mm orifice was found to give maximum degradation. Degradation increased with increase in pH and temperature. At pH 11, 100% degradation of green solution was observed at the end of 40 minutes and 95.22% degradation of violet dye solution at end of 60 minutes was found, when operated at 5 kg/cm2 pressure using 2 mm orifice.

Key words: Hydrodynamic cavitation, Malachite green, Methyl violet, Orifice Geometry, Cavitation number

1. Introduction

Waste water with dye causes extensive damage to the environment due to its toxicity and dense color. Nearly 20% of the compounds used for dyeing are let out to the environment (Akpan and Hameed, 2009; Quasif et al., 2013). About 50-70% dyes used in textile and paper industry are azo dyes (Saharan et al., 2011; Madhavan et al., 2010; Song et al., 2009). The discharge of dyed wastewaters to the environment is a significant source of non-aesthetic pollution and eutrophication and can give rise to dangerous byproducts through oxidation, hydrolysis or other chemical reactions taking place in the wastewater phase. It is evident that dyes can cause toxic effects and lessen light penetration in contaminated waters (Akpan and Hameed, 2009; Prado et al., 2008). Azo dyes consist of two nitrogen atoms and are the largest class of dyes used in textile industry (Jorgenson, 1999).

Malachite green is widely used in the production of leather, ceramics, textile industry, ceramics, food coloring and so on (Chen et al., 2011). It belongs to triphenyl methane dye. It is also used as disinfectant in aquaculture and many agriculture fields. But from past two decades researchers have found that malachite green and its reduced forms are highly toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic (Gaurav et al., 2014).

Received on September 2014 Published on January 2015 880

Methyl violet is a mutagen and mitotic

poison, thus creates negative ecological on the release of this dye into the environment. Its

PDF Image:

 Supercritical Fluid Extraction EIJES51082.pdf Page 001
SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTOR FOR SALE: 5L, 10L and 20L - 2,000 psi Complete Supercritical Fluid Extraction System - closed loop. Our systems are made at our fabrication shop in the state of Washington. Systems available: 5L, 10L, 20L, 100L, and larger custom. Typical build time is 2 weeks. This is not a Apeks Supercritical or Waters Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction System. We believe it is a better system, since we use 1/2 inch tubing for the CO2 flow, which is 4 times the flow rate of a Apeks, and up to 64 times the flow rate of a Waters system. We believe the result is faster processing time and better yield from increased exposure to CO2 solvent. Perfect for extraction of terpenes, trichomes, and Cannabinoids. Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction is a art, and the operator must have experience and training to obtain results. Go to website

Search Engine Contact: