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ESS-14+Poster+Bjorn+Gielen_The+effect+of+flow+and+agitation+on+ultrasonic+fields.pdf

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The Effect of Flow and Agitation on Ultrasonic Fields

KU Leuven

1Department of Industrial Science and Technology

2Department of Chemical Engineering

Bjorn Gielen*1,2, J. Janssen2, J. Jordens1,2, T. Van Gerven2, L. Braeken1 * Corresponding author: bjorn.gielen@cit.kuleuven.b

Introduction

In order to successfully design and scale up ultrasonic batch and continuous reactors, knowledge is needed on the effect of flow and agitation. Earlier studies show contradicting results involving both attenuation[1],[2],[3],[4] and enhancement [5],[6],[7],[8] of the ultrasonic activity, indicating this matter is not fully understood. A comparison between agitated batch and flow reactors using different measurement techniques is presented here to correlate fluid motion with local and overall acoustic intensity.

Materials and methods

Local ultrasonic intensity[1]

Thermocouple coated with absorbing material moving along the

axis of the transducer measures:

Overall ultrasonic intensity[9]

Photon counting head measures sonoluminescence signal before

(SL0) and after (SL) addition of quenchers:

i) Temperature rise

ii) Temperature difference

i) n-Propanol (100 - 200 mM) SL/SL0 =/↑: Coalescence effects +

Transient cavitation SL/SL0 ↓: Stable cavitation

ii) Acetone (100 - 200 mM) SL/SL0 =/↑: Coalescence effects

SL/SL0 ↓: Transient cavitation Flow reactor

ii)

Turbulent flow

i) Additionofquenchers:

Propanol SL/SL0↑ transient cavitation Aceton SL/SL0↓ confirmation of

transient cavitation

ii) Overall ultrasonic intensity:

SL enhancement by flow until turbulent regime is reached

iii) Addition of quenchers in flow:

Laminar regime: transient cavitation Turbulent regime: stable cavitation

Results

Stirred batch reactor

i)

iii)

ii)

i)

iii)

Turbulent flow

i) Additionofquenchers:

Propanol SL/SL0↓ stable cavitation

ii) Overall ultrasonic intensity:

SL enhancement by stirring until turbulent regime is reached

iii) Local ultrasonic intensity:

Attenuation of the signal as stirring speeds increases

Conclusions

- Same piezo-electric element does not always generate the same type of cavitation

- Cavitation type can alter in the presence of flow

- Effect of agitation or flow depends strongly on the used measurement technique:

Local ultrasonic intensity by coated thermocouple: attenuation of the signal as turbulence increases

Overall ultrasonic intensity by sonoluminescence: enhancement of the signal until turbulent flow regime is obtained

Acknowledgements

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n°NMP2-SL-2012-309874 (ALTEREGO) References

[1] Romdhane, M., Gadri, A., Contamine, F., Gourdon, C. and Casamatta, G., Experimental study of the ultrasound attenuation in chemical reactors, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 4, 235-243 (1997).

[3] Yim, B., Okuno, H., Nagata, Y. and Maeda, Y., Sonochemical degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons using a batch and continuous flow system, Journal of Hazardous Materials B81, 253-263 (2001).

[5] Rong, L., Koda, S. and Nomura, H., Study on degradation rate constant of chlorobenzene in aqueous solution using a recycle ultrasonic reactor, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 34, 1040-1044 (2001).

[7] Kojima, Y., Asakura, Y., Sugiyama, G. and Koda, S., The effects of acoustic flow and mechanical flow on the sonochemical efficiency in a rectangular sonochemical reactor, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 17, 978-984 (2010).

[9] Ashokkumar, M., Lee, J., Iida, Y., Yasui, K., Kozuka, T., Tuziuti, T. and Towata, A., The detection and control of stable and transient acoustic cavitation bubbles, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 11, 1018-10121 (2009).

[2] Gondrexon, N., Renaudin, V., Petrier, C., Boldo, P., Bernis, A. and Gonthier, Y., Degradation of pentachlorophenol aqueous solutions using a continuous flow ultrasonic reactor: experimental performance

and modeling, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 5, 125-131 (1999).

[4] Bussemaker, M. J. and Zhang, D., A phenomenological investigation into the opposing effects of fluid flow on sonochemical activity at different frequency and power settings, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21, 436-445 (2014).

[6] Hatanaka, S., Mitome, H., Yasui, K. and Hayashi, S., Multibubble sonoluminescence enhancement by fluid flow, Ultrasonics 44, e435-e438 (2006).

[8] Bussemaker, M. J. and Zhang, D., A phenomenological investigation into the opposing effects of fluid flow on sonochemical activity at different frequency and power settings, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21, 436-445 (2014).

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