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IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) e-ISSN: 2250-3021, p-ISSN: 2278-8719
Vol. 3, Issue 11 (November. 2013), ||V2|| PP 36-40
Sonochemical Reactor for Water Treatment in the Food Industry
Dr. T. Shlenskaya, PhD T. Baulina, Dr. O. Krasulya, Dr. S. Shestakov
Moscow State University of Technology and Management, Russia
Abstract : - The article presents a new development of the Moscow State University of Technology and Management - sonochemical reactor for water processing. A mission of sonochemistry is described and her factors that can effectively apply her to the food industry, disclosed. The results of studies of the food sonochemistry described, mainly for technology of dairy industry. Considered the problems of sonochemical reactors, which prevent the use technology of nonparametric amplification of cavitation in the food industry. The project of reactors of the cylindrical wave and nonparametric amplification of cavitation, which can be effectively used for the industrial preparation of the mixtures from dry dairy components proposed and was compared with the known reactors.
Keywords: - High Energy Chemistry, Sonochemistry, Sonochemical Reactor, Nonparametric Increasing Energy of Cavitation, Thermodynamically Non-equilibrium State of Water and its Relaxation, Hydration of Biopolymers.
Sonochemistry refers to high-energy chemistry. In that art of chemistry through the epithermal exposure on reactants in the endothermic liquid-phase reactions without heating of all solution containing this reagents, provides significant economic effect even in its industrial-scale.
The main factor of sonochemical reactions is the cavitation, at which in a fluid is generated a huge pulses of pressure from the cavitation bubbles. They in a phase of contraction is compressed to nanometer dimensions, and gas-vapor mixture inside them is heated to high temperatures and turns into a plasma. This condition is accompanied by the emission of photons and called the sonoluminescence . These photons even under normal conditions can be as high energy how ultraviolet. Known are even attempts to implement in cavitation bubbles filled with pairs of deuterated acetone, inertial fusion . Since the process of cavitation proceeds in adiabatic conditions, and the total volume of bubbles, compared to the volume of the liquid is negligible, therefore the sonochemical reactions which occurring in the gas phase have little practical importance. Found that cavitation in water hardly generates harmful factors that would hinder application of sonochemistry the food industry. In the course of the certification tests sonochemical reactors have detected immutable values the 'permanganate oxidation' after treatment with a sample containing 0.4 mg/l of free humic acids. This indicates that the readily oxidizable compounds such as humic acid is not transformed into other oxygenated compounds which are reducing agents with respect to potassium permanganate. But the speed of dissolution of a tablet of chemically pure sodium chloride in the water after the treatment was significantly increased . The originating in the gas phase of cavitation bubbles thermal dissociation of water molecules resulting in only occur a slight shift of pH into the alkaline region, and the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in amounts which at most intensive processes make up ppm in weight units of water.
Applicable in practice the sonochemical reactions in the liquid phase occur as a result of the pressure pulses which formed from pulsations are therein bubbles what is stimulating the reaction of solutes through a mechanical impact on the structure of their hydrate shell and on the water. Are developed the methods of influence on the intensity of cavitation, which give the opportunity to make these processes controllable .
The transformation of the energy of cavitational pressure pulses in the water implements of epithermal mechanism of the destruction of molecular associates of water, of hydration shells of ions and colloids of dissolved substances that prevent their entry into chemical reactions, and is accompanied by a slight increase the temperature of the medium. The water at the same time acquires a thermodynamically non-equilibrium state, which is characterized by its anomalously high solvency. It lasts as long as the received energy gradually would be returned in the form of heat of hydration. That hydration flows between the water molecules, and again restoring the hydrogen bonds and the corresponding to thermodynamic equilibrium structure of the water, if after cavitation treatment her empty-handed not mix . That is, over time, inevitably comes the relaxation of non-equilibrium state. If immediately after the cavitation in the water dissolve the dry biomass, e.g., dry milk or whey, the electrolytes there almost completely dissociates into ions, which undergo immobilize water monomolecule and protein molecules acquire dense shells of the monomolecule. This will increase the mass of the protein, because the water be connected thereto it through the mechanisms similar to those that occur in nature in the process of synthesis and almost as well, how in the structure of protein. The binding energy of the
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