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International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 3, Issue 5, November 2013
Equipment for Using the Sonochemistry into the
Fattening of Pigs
T. Shlenskaya, T. Baulina, O. Krasulya, S. Shestakov Moscow state University of Technologies and Management, Russia
Abstract—The article deals with the use of activated water for drinking of pigs. Moreover, is described a method sonochemical activation of water. Sonochemical activated water is devoid of own supramolecular structure and has a high solvent power similar to how a boiling water, while remaining virtually the same temperature, which was prior to treatment. It is shown that the water in a thermodynamically no equilibrium state, in which abideth some time as a result of such treatment, and has bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties, which it retains long time. All this suggests that the hydration of biopolymers directly into the esophagus and stomach of animals during their drinking will give tangible effect. Given the description of the mechanisms of cavitational disintegrated of water and described in comparison reactors for water treatment. Said that a regulatory authority in Russia give permission to use sonochemical technologies and devices in the food industry. Described sonochemical reactor, designed specifically for use in drinking of pigs, which have a reduced noise level and power consumption, but with better performance.
Index Terms—Hydration and Structuration of Biopolymers, Non-Stationary Thermodynamically State of the Water, Sonochemistry, Sonochemical Cavitation Reactor.
Water plays an important role when the fattening pigs. Water used for both sanitary and technological needs, and directly for drinking pigs. Plentiful drink need especially when fatten with dry foods [1,2]. As equipment are use nipple drinkers. In fattening complexes where there are sources of groundwater, they are attached to the network of water tower or directly to the network of installation for lifting water from wells. In the period of snow break or heavy precipitation as rain contaminated surface water can get into the water fed to animals.  Use of contaminated water can lead to the spread of infectious diseases among animals. Therefore, a special water treatment before its supply from the mains to the animals is need.
The use of activated in different ways drinking water for animals is well known. Activation are doing not only for the water treatment and disinfection, but also for increase the weight gain of the animals [3,4]. In conducting joint Russian-Belarusian Studies in Food sonochemistry , there was an interesting idea to apply sonochemical activated water for intensive hydration of biopolymers pigs feeds. It has been hypothesized that it could be applied when pigs has drinking. Then hydration will have place directly into the esophagus and stomach of animals. Prepared for this water should be supplied in drinking bowls for pigs which, for example, were designed and manufactured in the Republic of Belarus company "Demeter". It was decided to
equip them with special sonochemical reactors. The combination of feeding dry food with watering of sonochemical treated water will allow to the pigs better absorb food and increase weight gain. Thus, in the article  at the daily consumption of treated water cavitations larger than usual, weight gain increased by 6.5%. In this case, the consumption of specific energy for water treatment amounted to 34.4 kWh/t. The idea was supported by the Academician P. Vityaz of National Academy of Sciences. Under his leadership, the regional office of the Russian Acoustical Society developed a special sonochemical reactor .
II. SUBJECT OF SONOCHEMISTRY
Sonochemistry are high-energy chemistry. Nowadays, regarding sonochemistry, including the food processing industry and in agriculture, is held active research worldwide. Studies have begun and in the Moscow State University of Technology and Management (MSUTM) after the organization of it in 2009, the laboratory of food sonochemistry. This allowed him to stand on a par with the world's leading educational institutions - universities, Coventry, Illinois, Hohenheim, Melbourne and Mexico City. Was performed a sanitary-epidemiological examination and certification of designed in university the cavitation reactors by TU 5130-002-26784341-08 for implement of them into the sonochemical technology of food industry . Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare and State Standard of Russian the reactors are allowed to produce for use in the technological devices of food industry. These reactors (Fig. 1) allow us to replenish incurred of moisture losses on the stages of storage and transport of food raw material particularly in the dried and froze. It is believed that the pure protein can theoretically bind in the hydration reaction of up to 40% of the water of its weight. .
The main factor of the sonochemical reactions is a cavitation in the liquid at which generates giant impulses of pressure generated by the cavitation bubbles. Since the total amount of contents of bubbles, compared to the volume of the liquid is negligible, so that sonochemical reactions is occurring in the gas phase inside the bubbles have little practical importance. Practically significant sonochemical reactions is occur in the liquid phase as a result of distributing therein of the pressure pulses from the bubbles, stimulating the reaction of solutes through a mechanical impact on the structure of their hydrate shell and the most water. The thermal dissociation of water which going in the gas phase bubbles results in only a slight shift of pH to the alkaline
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