Supercritical Fluid Extraction Search Engine - Infinity Supercritical CO2 Extraction Publications Search Engine - Cannabis Industry - Publications On Demand - Real Time Browser Display
This SDR - Spinning Disc Reactor and Cavitation Reactor search was updated real-time via Filemaker on:SDR - Spinning Disc Reactor and Cavitation Reactor Contents List
Search Completed. Publication Name:
Page Number: 001
| PDF Text:|
This article discusses how the use of thin- cake vertical candle filters and horizontal pressure plate filters can efficiently remove activated carbon, metal catalysts, and trace insolubles from Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) slurries.
Thin-Cake Filtration Technologies for Removing Activated Carbon, Catalysts, and other Trace Solids from Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Slurries
Figure 1. BHS candle showing gas flow to expand the filter media sock for cake discharge.
by Barry A. Perlmutter
s the pharmaceutical industry has changed and grown since the mid- 1980s, there are increasing concerns about the safe handling of Active Phar-
maceutical Ingredients (APIs). To meet lower exposure limits of unknown compounds and to have batch-to-batch integrity with less opera- tor interaction, the industry’s need for new technologies has expanded.
In the chemical synthesis operations of a pharmaceutical plant, the components include
reactors, separation equipment, drying equip- ment, containment systems, and other process systems and utilities. The reaction step gener- ally includes hydrogenation catalysts, activated carbon, and other accelerators for the precipi- tation reaction. After this step, separation is required to remove these substances along with unreacted materials, process impurities and reaction by-products, and API residuals.
This article focuses on one area of impor- tance, which is the efficient removal of acti- vated carbon, metal catalysts, and trace insol-
ubles, such as diatomaceous earth, from API slurries. Cur- rently, most API slurries are clarified with the use of manual plate filters, filter presses, bag filters, cartridge filters, and other conventional filter equipment. All of these units require manual opera- tions for cake discharge and cleaning between batches or campaigns, as well as suffer from high labor and mainte- nance costs, high disposal costs, and the exposure of the operators and the environment to toxic and hazardous sol- vents and solids in addition to used and contaminated filter cloth, bag filters, and filter car- tridges.
Spinning disk filters also are commonly used for clarifi- cation. While these units over-
68 PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING
|SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTOR FOR SALE: 5L, 10L and 20L - 2,000 psi Complete Supercritical Fluid Extraction System - closed loop. Our systems are made at our fabrication shop in the state of Washington. Systems available: 5L, 10L, 20L, 100L, and larger custom. Typical build time is 2 weeks. This is not a Apeks Supercritical or Waters Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction System. We believe it is a better system, since we use 1/2 inch tubing for the CO2 flow, which is 4 times the flow rate of a Apeks, and up to 64 times the flow rate of a Waters system. We believe the result is faster processing time and better yield from increased exposure to CO2 solvent. Perfect for extraction of terpenes, trichomes, and Cannabinoids. Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction is a art, and the operator must have experience and training to obtain results. Go to website|
Search Engine Contact: email@example.com