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Particle Size Distribution
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A Novel Approach For Making Multiple Emulsions: The Use Of Spinning Disc Reactor
M. Akhtar, Q. He, T. Lambourne and L. Lin
School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT
Spinning disc reactor (SDR) technology is a novel technique for making stable multiple emulsions. In comparison with the conventional two-stage emulsification process, the SDR- processed multiple emulsions have finer droplet size with fairly narrow distributions.
This new technology can be applied in a continuous process on industrial scale, that is cost effective and energy saving.
In this study, the multiple emulsion approach has been used in producing low fat mayonnaise and also encapsulating mineral (Fe3O4) for cosmetic use.
Potential Benefits of Novel Technology
By using this technology, via multiple emulsion approach we can:
Encapsulate minerals, vitamins, flavours and other nutrients Reduce the fat content
Improve the quality without changing their texture and
Control the delivery of a specific drug at a specific time
Sustain the release effect of active components in personal
A schematic diagram of the spinning disc reactor (SDR).
—70% (full fat mayonnaise) —62%
mayonaise, 02 July 2012 12:59:59
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Storage time (days)
SDR-processed W/O/W emulsions with varying fat content.
Droplet size distributions of the SDR-made multiple emulsions.
19/7, 25 July 2012 17:14:48
Confocal laser scanning image of SDR-processed low fat (62%) mayonnaise W/O/W emulsions.
mayo 45:55 2days, 06 July 2012 13:48:29
primary emulsifier oil phase
inner aqueous phase
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Storage time (days)
0.5 wt% ferric oxide encapsulated in W/O/W multiple emulsions.
The SDR technology is capable of producing moderately mono-disperse stable multiple emulsions as a result of the relatively gentle continuous emulsification processing that can be applied.
Using this technology, we can reduce the fat content in the products like mayonnaise and successfully encapsulate Fe3O4 within multiple emulsions with a high degree of retention and protection.
The research is funded by the University of Leeds, Clothwokers’ Innovation Fund (CIF).
oil+lipophilic emulsifier (80 vol%)
W+hydrophilic emulsifier aqueous phase
Pressure 300 bar
primary emulsion (W/O)
Spinning disc reactor
8 ml/s, 2000 rpm
a W/O/W multiple emulsion
Two-stage emulsification process.
75% fat 62% fat 42%fat
aqueous phase (20 vol%)
primary emulsion (20 vol%)
Ave. droplet size, (μm) Ave. droplet size, d43 (μm)
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