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Nikacevic&etal_CE&P_2012.pdf

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Chemical Engineering and Processing 52 (2012) 1–15

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cep

Opportunities and challenges for process control in process intensification Nikola M. Nikacˇevic ́ a,∗, Adrie E.M. Huesmana, Paul M.J. Van den Hofa, Andrzej I. Stankiewiczb

a Delft Center for Systems and Control, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands

b Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft, The Netherlands

article info

Article history:

Received 31 March 2011

Received in revised form 7 November 2011 Accepted 9 November 2011

Available online 18 November 2011

Keywords:

Process intensification Process control Process actuation Process synthesis Dynamic optimization

Contents

abstract

This is a review and position article discussing the role and prospective for process control in process intensification. Firstly, the article outlines the classical role of control in process systems, presenting an overview of control systems’ development, from basic PID control to the advanced model based hierarchi- cal structures. Further on, the paper reviews the research articles discussing control issues of intensified process equipment, specifically of reactive distillation, divided wall distillation, simulated moving bed reactors and micro-scale systems. In the next section, the focus is on more fundamental, dynamic char- acteristics of selected intensified process categories, which are elucidated in several examples. The goal of this analysis is to stress to the potential challenges for control of intensified processes. More impor- tantly, the aim of this part is to emphasize to the opportunities for control, which are associated with new actuation possibilities arising from process intensification. Finally, a new concept of process syn- thesis is elaborated, which is based on process intensification and actuation improvement. The concept enables integration of process operation, design and control through dynamic optimization. This simul- taneous synthesis approach should provide optimal operation and more efficient control of complex intensified systems. It may also suggest innovative process solutions which are more economically and environmentally efficient and agile.

© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 1

2. Development of process control systems and state-of-the-art ..................................................................................... 2

3. Control of intensified process systems—current status and role.................................................................................... 4

4. Dynamic and operating characteristics of selected intensified processes categories—challenges and opportunities for process control . . . . . . . . 6

4.1. Hybridunits—operationalconstraints....................................................................................................... 6

4.2. Alternative driving forces and energy sources—dynamic advantages....................................................................... 7

4.3. Miniaturizationofspace—reductionintime................................................................................................. 9

5. Towards the full integration of process intensification, operation and control..................................................................... 11 5.1. Actuationanalysisanddesign................................................................................................................ 11

5.2. New integral approach to process synthesis based on dynamic optimization.............................................................. 11

6. Concludingremarks.................................................................................................................................. 13 Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................................. 14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1. Introduction

The process industry is confronted with diverse challenges. First of all, society requires a sustainable industrial development outlined by environmental responsibility, renewable energy use

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +31 15 27 83519, fax: +31 15 27 86679. E-mailaddress:n.nikacevic@tudelft.nl(N.M.Nikacˇevic ́).

0255-2701/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.cep.2011.11.006

and higher energy efficiency. These requirements are expressed in more stringent legislation regarding waste production, CO2 emis- sions, air and water pollution, etc. On the other hand, economic pressures are prevailing—global competition, dynamic change of market demands, short time to market, more efficient supply chain, considerable cost reduction, etc. These economic demands and unstable economic situation are forcing industry to be more flexible and to be able to change production capacities fast. Fur- thermore,frequentvariationsinfeeds’compositions,togetherwith

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