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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

e Scienti c World Journal

Volume 2013, Article ID 196470, 9 pages

Research Article

A Novel Photocatalyst with Ferromagnetic Core Used for the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Effluents from Two-Phase Production Process

Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido,1 Gassan Hodaifa,2

María Dolores Víctor-Ortega,1 and Antonio Martínez-Ferez1

1 Chemical Engineering Department, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain

2 Molecular Biology and Biochemical Engineering Department, University Pablo de Olavide, 14013 Seville, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Gassan Hodaifa; Received 26 August 2013; Accepted 2 October 2013

Academic Editors: F. Oktar and Z. Zhang

Copyright © 2013 Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. e degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW) and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v) washing wastewaters (MOMW) was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (𝜏) for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (𝜏 = 2 h) and 21.4% (𝜏 = 3h), respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T occulation operation as pretreatment was realized. e overall e ciency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW.

1. Introduction

Photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) under ultraviolet light (UV) is an advanced oxidation process (AOP) in which the titanium dioxide semiconductor absorbs UV radiation and generates hydroxyl radicals (OH∙). In detail, conduction band electrons and valence band holes of TiO2 are initially yielded by UV irradiation. erea er, band electrons are capable of interacting with surface-adsorbed molecular oxy- gen to form superoxide radical anions (O2 ∙ ), whereas band holes will interact with water to produce hydroxyl radicals (OH∙) (Figure 1) [1]. Organic compounds can undergo oxidative degradation through their reactions with valence band holes, hydroxyl (OH∙), and superoxide (O2∙) radicals as well as reductive cleavage through their reactions with electrons (e−).

e titanium dioxide molecule absorbs near UV radiation (wavelength 𝜆 < 400nm), leading to the generation of

electron/valence band holes pairs, as indicated as follows (Figure 1):

TiO (h⋅V) →TiO (e−+h+) (1) 22

Valence band holes are prone to react with absorbed sub- stances, in particular with water molecules (H2 Oad ) (2) or hydroxyl ions (OH− ) (3), generating hydroxyl radicals (OH∙ ) as follows: ad


T i O 2 ( h ) + H 2 O a d → T i O 2 + O H + H ( 2 )


TiO2(h )+OH ad →TiO2+OH (3)

Absorbed oxygen is the main electron acceptor species as follows:


TiO2 (e ) + O2 → TiO2 + O2 (4)

Among the known semiconductor photocatalysts (ZnO, WO3, CdS, ZnS, SrTiO3, SnO2, Fe2O3) TiO2 has deserved

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