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P020131220579599057450.pdf

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Progress in Energy and Combustion Science xxx (2013) 1e38

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Progress in Energy and Combustion Science journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/pecs

Review

Ultrasound-enhanced conversion of biomass to biofuels

Jia Luo a, Zhen Fang a, *, Richard L. Smith Jr. b

a Chinese Academy of Sciences, Biomass Group, Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resource and Sustainable Use, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223, China

b Tohoku University, Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-6-11, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980 8579, Japan

articleinfo

Article history:

Received 1 February 2013 Accepted 31 October 2013 Available online xxx

Keywords:

Ultrasound Lignocellulose Pretreatment Microalgae Biodiesel

Contents

abstract

Two important challenges need to be addressed to realize a practical biorefinery for the conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals: (i) effective methods for the degradation and fractionation of ligno- celluloses and (ii) efficient and robust chemical methods for the conversion of bio-feeds to target products via highly selective catalytic reactions. Ultrasonic energy promotes the pretreatment and conversion process through its special cavitational effects. In this review, recent progress and methods for combining and integrating sonication into biomass pretreatment and conversion for fuels and chemicals are critically assessed. Ultrasonic energy combined with proper solvents allows destruction of the recalcitrant lignocellulosic structure, fractionation of biomass components, and then assists many thermochemical and biochemical reactions, with increased equilibrium yields of sugars, bio-ethanol and gas products by 10e300%. Sonication promotes hydrolysis, esterification and transesterification in bio- diesel synthesis and leads to reduced reaction time by 50e80%, lower reaction temperature, less amounts of solvent and catalyst than comparable unsonicated reaction systems. For algal biomass, sonication benefits the disruption, lysis and content release of macro and microalgae cells, and reduces the time required for subsequent extraction and chemical/biochemical reactions, with efficiencies typically being improved by 120e200%. High-frequency ultrasound of 1e3 MHz allows harvesting of microalgae, liquid product separation and in-situ process monitoring of biomass reactions, while high- intensity ultrasound at 20e50 kHz activates heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis of the biomass re- actions. The use of ultrasound in conversion of biomass to biofuels provides a positive process benefit.

! 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction................................................................ ....................................................... 00

2. Physicalmechanismsforultrasonicenergy............................................................................................. 00

2.1. Ultrasound, energy transformation and acoustic cavitation ...................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00

2.2. Basisforreactordesignandparameters ........................................................................................ 00

2.2.1. Designofultrasonicreactors........................................................................................... 00

2.2.2. Ultrasonicfrequency .................................................... ............................................. 00

2.2.3. Propertiesofhomogeneoussolvents ............................................. ...................................... 00

2.2.4. Heterogeneous properties of ultrasound-assisted reactions .................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00

2.2.5. Otherparameters .................................................................................................... 00

3. Ultrasonic pretreatment and reactions of lignocellulosic biomass ....................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00

3.1. Destructionandfractionationoflignocellulose ............................................ ...................................... 00

3.2. Conversion of lignocellulose to saccharides and bio-ethanol ...................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00

3.3. Fermentation of lignocellulosic wastes to biogas and bio-hydrogen .................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00

3.4. Mechanismandresearchneeds ................................................... ............................................ 00

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ86 871 65137468; fax: þ86 871 65160916. E-mail address: zhenfang@xtbg.ac.cn (Z. Fang).

URL: http://brg.groups.xtbg.ac.cn/

0360-1285/$ e see front matter ! 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2013.11.001

Please cite this article in press as: Luo J, et al., Ultrasound-enhanced conversion of biomass to biofuels, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2013.11.001

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