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StringhamRwhenbubble.pdf

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Stringham, R. When Bubble Cavitation Becomes Sonofusion. in 237rd ACS National Meeting. 2009. Salt Lake City.

When Bubble Cavitation Becomes Sonofusion

Roger S. Stringham

First Gate Energies, PO Box 1230, Kilauea, HI 96754

Experimentally, heat and 4He are the fusion products of sonofusion (SF). SF controls a naturally occurring phenomenon with cavitation-induced bubbles and their high energy density transferred to transient jets that implant deuteron clusters into a matrix or lattice. The SF path to clusters can be extrapolated from high-density experiments of inertial confined fusion, ICF, Bose Einstein Condensates, BEC, muon fusion, MF, and astrophysical phenomena, to explain our ejecta sites, Qx, 4He, and no measureable long- range radiation results. The fusion events emanate from deuteron clusters implanted into target foils. Clusters are squeezed and cooled via electromagnetic, EM, compression pressures and evaporative cooling of cluster surface deuterons producing the fusion environment. Evidence of these cluster fusion events is found in the millions of target foil ejecta sites in SF target foils.

Introduction (See Appendix list)

The first experiments in SF started early in 1989, although not initially known by that name, when the announcement of Fleischmann and Pons, FP, discovery was first announced. It was a week after the FP announcement that my first experiments began in cavitating D2O with Pd targets. The initial experiments were at 20 KHz in large and cumbersome 20 Kg devices that over time – 19 years – are 1.6 MHz 20 gm devices with about the same excess heat output. Chronologically over the 19 years the size was reduced and piezo frequency increased for the evolving SF devices. And in the last ten years it was slowly realized that the high transient density of inertial confined fusion, ICF, and new astrophysical information, and the ultra low temperature bosons and fermions are linked and extended to SF. The SF cluster systems are 1000 times faster and billions of times smaller in volume and number of particles than the hot fusion ICF systems. The SF model is a series of sequential steps where the cavitation and jet are well established in mainstream science. The formation of transient clusters and their compression is more speculative in nature. And finally, the interpretation of ejecta site data is a logical interpretation of scanning electron microscopy, SEM, photos of ejecta sites found on target foils. These steps indicate a clear path to our SF experimental results [1] but may not be the only path. The emphasis of this model to explain the experimental fusion products of heat and 4He is on the jet, the sonofusion cluster, and the ejecta sites

The environment of sonofusion is D2O cavitated, Ar saturated, and reactor circulated. A target foil is carefully placed in the reactor. A cavitation produced cluster of BEC deuterons imbedded into the lattice serves as the containment of this nano scale transient deuteron cluster. The initially dense cluster is further compressed and cooled by evaporative surface deuterons of the cluster. These interact with free electrons forming deuterium atoms that surround the cluster. These accelerating free electrons produce an imploding spherical electromagnetic, EM, pulse that squeezes the cluster to fusion densities in less than a picosecond. And these electrons will pass through initially formed deuterium atoms to the fresh surface of the deuterons to keep the implosion pulse growing for about 0.1 picosecond. (The rate of formation of deuterium atoms is a femtosecond. [2]). The fusion event initiates a heat pulse destroying the cluster. The spherical heat pulse travels into and through the lattice to its surface. There it erupts with lattice ejecta and fusion products 4He and heat, Qx. These products are measured by mass spectroscopy and calorimetry. Left behind in the target

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