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International Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science & Technology(IJAREST), ISSN(O):2393-9877, ISSN(P): 2394-2444,

Volume 2,Issue 5, May- 2015, Impact Factor: 2.125



Rajendrasinh R.Gaekwad1, Prof. Reshma L. Patel2

1Department of Civil Engineering,BVM Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar,Gujarat (India) 2Department of Civil Engineering,BVM Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar,Gujarat (India)


Industrial wastewater treatment is practiced using a number of physical, physico-chemical and biological methods of treatment. Quality of wastewater in terms of number and nature of pollutants, usually expressed in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and desired level of reduction in these pollutants dictates the selection of process. In the present work, degradation of pesticide effluent has been investigated using Hydrodynamic Cavitation process. In this study, the effect of Cavitation was examined for the different time intervals from 0 to 150 mins. maximum COD removal achieved was 90.55% and colour removal achieved was 83.21% in 75 mins.

Key words:Advanced oxidation process, COD removal, pesticide wastewater, Hydrodynamic cavitation.


It is estimated that India approximately loses 18 per cent (%) of crop yield valued at 900 billion due to pest attack each year. The use of pesticides helps in reducing the crop loss, provides economic benefits to farmers, reduces soil erosion and helps in ensuring food safety and security for the nation.

As per the Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage, the production capacity of pesticides in the country is around 1, 39,000 MT annually with more than 125 technical grade/manufacturing units and over 800 formulation units. In the recent years, the consumption of pesticides has shown a downward trend from 75,000 MT in 1991-1992 to around 37,959 MT in 2006-2007 - reasons being the popularization of Integrated Pest Management approach, which includes cultural, physical, mechanical, biological and need-based use of safest chemical pesticides including neem-based bio- pesticides in harmonized manner as well as use of low dose new molecules, ban on the Heptachlor, Chlordane and BHC, etc., and the cultivation of Cotton etc.

Presently, there are about 1, 46,747 sale/distribution points of pesticides in the country to ensure easy availability of pesticides to farmers. Major chemical r e a c t i on s i n v ol ve d i n p r o d u c t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l g r a d e pesticides are: alkylation, carboxylation, acet ylation, condensation, cyclization, dehydration, halogenation, oxidation, sulphonation, nitration.

Every reaction ends with some quantities of un- reacted raw materials and some unwanted products that will remain in the system. Desired products from these reactions may be carefully recovered at every step from the system and unwanted products can be discarded. These inevitably become pollutants in wastewater and solid waste. Some are vented out to the atmosphere. There are some cases where some recyclable materials may be profitably

taken back into the system. Impurities present in raw materials may also react with one another and in many cases, which show up as a scum, froth or tar or simply as un- reacted raw material.

General observations with respect t o the manufacturing processes of pesticides industry are given below, which are very important as these play a major role on the quality and characteristics of the wastewater (effluent), air emissions and solid/hazardous waste generation:

1. Most of these industries manufacture more than one pesticide. All the products may not have separate process routes. Some products, which are d e r i ve d f r o m s i mi l a r r e a c t i o n c h e m i s t r y , a r e manufactured by same unit configuration with minor changes in raw materials. Even if a plant produces more than four products, it is unlikely that more than four lines exist. Not all pesticides are manufactured throughout the year. Some are manufactured only for a part of the year and the process line of this product is used for manufacturing a different products during the remaining part of the year depending on the crop, season, or demand. The same product may be manufactured with different process operations in different industries. Some may start the process of manufacture using basic raw materials, thus making the process lengthy and has pollution potential, while the others may start process using intermediates and manufacturing the product with reduced steps and lesser pollution.

2. The quantity of effluent generated varies widely from 0.5 to 120 kilo liters (kL) per tonne of product. Hence, it is difficult to summarize a specific limit for effluent generation as is usually done for other industries such as distilleries, sugar, and breweries etc., due to diversity of products and

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