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R. S. Hiremath1, V. M. Bhandari2* and V. V. Ranade2

1 Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Technology, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune, India.

2National Chemical Laboratory,Pune, India.

*E-mail :


Hydrodynamic cavitation for the degradation of model dye wastewater containing Auramine O dye was investigated using vortex diode as a cavitating device. The effect of different operating parameters such as inlet pressure, initial dye concentration and flow rate on degradation rate of auramine O was studied in the concentration range of 80 mg/L to 1200 mg/L. The cavitational yield of the cavitating device was obtained on the basis of COD reduction and color (based on absorbance). The results indicate that the COD reduction efficiencies were significantly affected by the physical operating conditions, indicating possibilities of enhancing COD removal efficiencies by optimization of operating parameters. Substantial enhancement was demonstrated in the degradation of dye solution using hydrodynamic cavitation. The superior performance of cavitating device in the form of vortex diode can be seen as a viable alternative for conventional cavitational reactors.

Keywords : Wastewater; Auramine O ; Hydrodynamic Cavitation; Vortex Diode; COD Introduction

Rapid industrialization world over has resulted into huge industrial effluents causing water pollution and also leading to water crisis in many countries apart from serious consequences on the environment and for the society in general. Most polluting industries include textile industries, sugar mills, distilleries, leather processing industries, dairy, paper, pharmaceuticals and thermal power stations. Effluents from dyes and pigment industries have high COD and are highly visible effluents since concentration as low as 0.005 mg/L may cause appearance of color. In addition, the toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of azo-dye degradation byproducts are of great environmental concern. Dye/Textile wastewater of many dyes exhibit low BOD to COD ratio (< 0.1) indicating non- biodegradability or refractory nature of dyes. Reactive dyes are most widely used since its contribution in wastewater is almost 30% followed by direct, disperse, acidic and basic dyes. The technologies for color removal and mineralization for dye wastewater treatment can be broadly divided into two categories: biological (aerobic process, anaerobic process, anoxic process, pond process etc.), and physico-chemical (Oxidative process, photo chemical process, Adsorption/Ion-exchange process, Membranes etc). Many a times, most processes have limitations in terms of scale-up, reliability, techno- economic feasibility, extent of degradation, environmental impact, practicability, pretreatment, sludge production, and toxic byproducts formation. Cavitation is one form of advanced oxidation process and has been widely investigated with more focus on ultrasonically induced cavitation. However, sonochemical reactors have higher operating cost and substantially lower energy efficiencies.

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