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A creep model for austenitic stainless steels incorporating cavitation and wedge cracking

S Mahesh

Departments of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016. India.

E-mail: K C Alur

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016. India.

M D Mathew

Mechanical metallurgy division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102. India

Abstract. A model of damage evolution in austenitic stainless steels under creep loading at elevated temperatures is proposed. The initial microstructure is idealized as a space-tiling aggregate of identical rhombic dodecahedral grains, which undergo power law creep deformation. Damage evolution in the form of cavitation and wedge- cracking on grain boundary facets is considered. Both diffusion- and deformation- driven grain boundary cavity growth are treated. Cavity and wedge-crack length evolution is derived from an energy balance argument that combines and extends the models of Cottrell [1], Williams [2] and Evans [3]. The time to rupture predicted by the model is in good agreement with published experimental data for a type 316 austenitic stainless steel under uniaxial creep loading. Deformation and damage evolution at the microscale predicted by the present model are also discussed.

Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, creep, grain boundary sliding, cavitation, wedge- cracking.

Submitted to: Modeling and simulation in materials science and engineering 1. Introduction

Under service conditions in high temperature applications, austenitic stainless steel components suffer creep damage leading to eventual creep rupture. In the technologically important homologous temperature range of 0.3–0.5, the creep micromechanism transitions from diffusion-controlled cavitation in the low applied stress

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