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XVI Session of the Russian Acoustical Society
Moscow, November 14-18, 2005
TO THE THEORY OF CAVITATION REACTOR 3
Russian Acoustic Society Vologda Regional Branch Office 39 Nekrasova street, Vologda 160019 Russian Federation Tel.: +7(817-2) 54-6259; Fax: +7(817-2) 54-3353
This work defines the role of cavitation reactor with a harmonious wave energy source among processes and devices for cavitation treatment of liquids. It is shown, that in a cavitation field an interference effect takes place with respect to a total pressure pulse which arises at superposition of fields of separate bubbles. Therefore cavitation energy allocated in a reactor is always distributed non-uniformly. It is shown by the example of the mathematical model of a cavitation field. With the purpose of model testing exothermal effect of reaction of autohydration of water is investigated. Sufficient coincidence is obtained. The observable phenomenon is the result of “epithermal” change of thermodynamic balance of water treated with cavitation.
There is a specialist opinion in the field of acoustic cavitation, that the total pressure pulse generated by ensemble of cavitation bubbles in a multibubble reactor, can be increased by augmentation of the pulse generated by each separate bubble, synchronization of a collapse of bubbles among themselves and increase of hydrostatic pressure . With respect to the first it can be made by synchronization of a collapse with the end of a half-cycle of harmonic pressure compression. Remaining raises the doubts. As bubbles in cavitation field are dispersed in space, an interference effect takes place with respect to total pressure pulse originating at a superposition of fields of separate bubbles.
The mathematical model of a cavitation reactor describes allocation of an average cavitation energy density w [J/m3] on a reactor section, which makes it possible to control cavitation process. In  combinatory functions are utilized for this purpose. In conditions considered here an expression of cavitation energy allocated during harmonic pressure period in a point of a reactor space with n cavitation fields looks like:
where: а - average harmonic value of distances between the arbitrary point and all points of surfaces of crests of pressure visual from it; ρ - average arithmetical distance between the arbitrary point and all surfaces of all crests of harmonic pressure visual from it; β - adiabatic compressibility of fluid r0, p0 - equilibrium radius of a bubble and pressure on its border, accordingly.
As shown in , when a bubble collapse contemporizes with the end of a half-cycle of harmonic pressure compression, cavitation effect practically does not depend on total energy alterations spread in a reactor. That is, at a variation of harmonic pressure voltage a significant kinetic energy variation and little significant potential energy variation occurs. Therefore it is possible to consider, that the amount of energy necessary and sufficient for fluid impact in these conditions depends only on duration of action τ1 and a relaxation time of a non-steady state of this fluid τ2.
As the mechanism of power transmission, for example, in water at cavitation impact has an epithermal character, therefore, for example, dissociation degree of the electrolytes dissolved in it will increase as contrasted to thermodynamic balanced water which is determined by hydration ability of water in standard conditions. Generated “exuberant” ions, gaining sheaths of solvent molecules from not structured water, become complex that hinders their fast recombination and allows water to reserve and save energy for some time.
If we consider electric conductivity as a standard of mineralization level of water, increase of dissociation degree of molecules of salts under cavitation energy impact should appear as apparent temporal augmentation of ∆C level. The degradation of a parameter дС = ∆C/С in solutions of electrolytes has been investigated experimentally with the help of the conductometric canal of an Anion 7051 device (INFRASPAK, the Russian Federation). By approximation of processing effect of solutions of salts of А+В− type with an ionic bonding at processing frequency of 22 kHz the following expression was obtained:
N2λ2 β 2 2 ⎧ρ 1 ⎡n⎤⎫ ⎧ρ 1 ⎡n⎤⎫2 w= a2ρ2 2 p0r0 (⎨⎩λ+2n⎢⎣2⎥⎦⎬⎭−⎨⎩λ+2n⎢⎣2⎥⎦⎬⎭ )
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